APE Topic 12: "REVOLUTION AND THE REIMPOSITION OF ORDER"
Section 58: "PARIS: THE SPECTER OF SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN
1. Why did revolutions break out in so many different places at once in Europe in 1848? What may be said in general about these revolutions?
2. What forces of discontent in the July Monarchy led to the abdication of Louis Philippe?
3. Describe the composition and policies of the Provisional Government after the February Revolution. What division existed within it?
4. Discuss the background and significance of the "Bloody June Days" of 1848. How did contemporaries react?
5. How would you explain the election of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as president in December 1848? Describe his political maneuvers after the election. What were the results?
1. Louis Philippe--
2. Louis Blanc--
3. Labor Commission--
4. National Workshops--
6. Second French Republic--
9. coup d'etat of December 2, 1851--
Section 59: "VIENNA: THE NATIONALIST REVOLUTION IN CENTRAL
EUROPE AND ITALY"
l. Describe the nature of the Austrian Empire in 1848. What attitude did Metternich maintain toward nationalism and liberal reform in the empire?
2. What revolutionary developments took place in March 1848 in the Austrian Empire? in Prussia and the other German states? in Italy?
3. What factors account for the ebbing of the revolutionary tide after June 1848?
4. Describe the victories of the counterrevolution between June 1848 and December 1848. How did division in the ranks of the revolutionaries contribute to their defeat?
5. What new revolutionary developments occurred in the first half of 1849? Explain their outcome.
6. Discuss the changes in attitudes and policies that took place in central Europe and in Italy immediately following the Revolution of 1848.
1. March Days--
2. Louis Kossuth--
3. March Laws--
4. Frankfurt Assembly--
6. Francis Joseph--
8. Pius IX--
9. Bach system--
Section 60: "FRANKFURT AND BERLIN: THE QUESTION OF A LIBERAL GERMANY"
1. What seemed to be the major obstacle to German unification? other obstacles?
2. Describe Prussia in the years before 1848. Which aspects of Prussian development seem illiberal? Which seemed forward-looking?
3. What position did Frederick William IV take when revolution broke out in Prussia? Explain the status of the revolution there by the end of 1848.
4. How did the origin of the Frankfurt Assembly contribute both to its strength and to its weakness? Of what significance was its desire to retain non-German peoples?
5. Explain the decisions that the Frankfurt Assembly reached on the nature of the new Germany, and the outcome of the assembly's proposals.
6. Why did Frederick William IV's plan for a German union fail?
7. What general observations can be made about the failure of the German unification movement of 1848?
1. Frederick William IV--
3. Berlin Assembly--
4. Great Germans vs. Little Germans--
5. Declaration of the Rights of the German People--
6. Prussian constitution of 1850—
Section 61: "THE NEW TOUGHNESS OF MIND: REALISM, POSITIVISM, MARXISM"
1. What may be said about the accomplishments, failures, and indirect consequences of the revolution of 1848?
2. Analyze the moral reorientation that took place after 1848. How was the new toughness of mind reflected in literature and the arts? in attitudes toward science? in religion? in basic philosophical thought? in new attitudes in domestic and international affairs?
3. How would you analyze the principal sources of Marxism? How did Marxism dramatize the existing conditions of the working classes?
4. How did Marx explain the nature of capitalist crises and
"depressions? Explain the nature and the significance for Marxism of dialectical materialism. How did Marx's views differ from those of Hegel?
5. Summarize the pictures of the past, present, and future offered by Marx. What were the implications for the working class of the existing war between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat?
6. How would you explain the advantages and handicaps of Marxism in winning supporters?
4. Friedrich Engels--
5. Communist Manifesto--
7. Condition of the Working Classes in England--
8. "surplus value"--
9. materialist conception of history--
10. "dictatorship of the proletariat"--
11. "withering away" of the state--
12. "scientific socialism"--
13. "utopian socialism"--
Section 62: "BONAPARTISM: THE SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE"
1. Discuss political institutions and political life in the Second Empire.
2. Describe French economic growth under Napoleon III. What gains did working people make in these years?
3. Explain Napoleon III's attitude toward free trade. Of what significance were the 1860's for the development of free trade in Europe?
4. What kind of opposition to Napoleon III developed? What caused the ruin and downfall of the Second Empire?
5. Why may Napoleon III be looked upon as a precursor of the contemporary age?
6. How do the illustrations and accompanying text in the Picture Essay illustrate social and economic trends in England and France in the nineteenth century?
2. "socialist emperor"--
3. Credit Mobilier--
4. Credit Foncier--
5. Suez Canal--
6. law of "limited liability"--
7. free trade treaty of 1860--