Topic Four Objectives and Terms
1. What observations can be made about the significance of Western Europe in the development of modern civilization since about 1650?
2. What general statements can be made about the nature of Louis XIV's rule in France and about the role of France in European affairs during his reign?
3. Why did Louis XIV's foreign policy arouse the opposition of the rest of Europe?
4. Explain the nature of the "balance of power" that was employed against Louis XIV. Of what broad significance has the "balance of power" concept been in diplomatic history?
5. Describe Dutch cultural and commercial accomplishments in the seventeenth century.
6. How do the two paintings by Rembrandt (pp. 113 and 165) and the paintings by Vermeer and Moreelse (pp. 111 and 293) illustrate Dutch artistic achievements and Dutch intellectual, commercial, and colonial enterprises?
7. Explain the nature of government and of political life in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic.
8. How did the Dutch and English come into conflict in the seventeenth century? With what results?
9. How did the Dutch become involved in conflict with Louis XIV? With what results?
10. What comparisons may be made between events in England in the seventeenth century and developments on the Continent?
11. Why did Parliament come into conflict with James I? with Charles? How did the special nature of Parliament make its resistance effective?
12. How did the civil war begin? How did Cromwell emerge as ruler of England?
3. Describe the government of England under the Commonwealth and the Protectorate. What is meant by the regime of the "major generals"?
14. What policies did Cromwell follow toward Scotland? toward Ireland? in foreign affairs? toward the more radical elements emerging in England?
15. How would you evaluate Cromwell's role in English history?
16. Explain the general nature of the Restoration in England. Of what significance was the legislation enacted by the Restoration Parliament?
17. How did religious matters again bring Parliament and king into conflict? What policies of James II precipitated the Revolution of 1688?
18. Summarize the legislation introduced after the Revolution of 1688. Of what significance was William's acceptance of the Bill of Rights?
19. Of what constitutional significance for England was the
Revolution of 1688? Why have writers in more recent times "deglorified" the revolution? Give arguments for and against this point of view.
20. What were the consequences of these events for Scotland? for Ireland?
21. What factors accounted for France's leadership during the age of Louis XIV? Describe French cultural contributions and achievements in this age.
22. How did Louis XIV develop the "state" in its modern form? What is suggested as the deeper meaning of his reputed boast, "L'etat, c'est moi"?
23. What arguments were used to justify the divine right of kings in the seventeenth century?
24. Discuss Louis XIV's (a) military and administrative reforms, (b) economic and financial policies, (c) religious policy.
25. How would you assess the reign of Louis XIV from a purely domestic point of view?
26. From the illustrations and discussion in the Picture Essay (pp. 199-209), what does one learn about the meaning of the "baroque" style in architecture in this age? about French cultural influence in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
27. Describe Louis XIV's foreign policy in the years prior to the War of the Spanish Succession. Of what significance were the "chambres de reunion" in Alsace and Lorraine?
28. What features of the War of the Spanish Succession made it distinctive? Why was the war fought?
29. Summarize the main developments of the war. What motives prompted each state to continue to fight?
30. What were the major provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht? On what basis were differences between the great powers settled?
Charles II of Spain
Estates-General of the United Provinces
Bank of Amsterdam
House of Orange
English Navigation Act of 1651
Treaty of Nimwegen
James VI of Scotland
"The True Law of Free Monarchy"
"tunnage and poundage"
ship money case
Solemn League and Covenant
Fifth Monarchy Men
Instrument of Government
treaty of Dover
declaration of indulgence
Whigs and Tories
trial of the seven bishops
William and Mary
battle of the Boyne
Bill of Rights
United Kingdom of Great Britain
Act of Settlement of 1701
divine right of kings
councils of state
Five Great Farms
French East India Company
revocation of the Edict of Nantes
War of Devolution
Treaty of Nimwegen
chambres de reunion
War of the League of Augsburg
Peace of Ryswick
Charles II of Spain
The Pyrenees exist no longer
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough
Philip V of Spain
Grand Alliance of 1701
Prince Eugene of Savoy
treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt