Topic 10 Discussion 51:  The Overthrow of Napoleon:  The Congress of Vienna

 

1.     Europe in 1811

a.      Napoleon controlled the mainland

b.     Russia was at war with Turkey

c.     Spain was resisting Napoleons presence

d.     The Continental System was working badly

e.      Many in Europe were waiting for the opportunity to move against Napoleon

f.       All eyes are on Russia

2.     The Russian Campaign and the War of Liberation

a.      Russia leaves the Continental System 12/1810

b.     Napoleon declares war

c.     June 1812 Napoleon invades Russia

                                                  i.      Everything went wrong from the beginning

                                                ii.      The Russians made a continuous retreat

1.     scorched earth

2.     Numbers in the Russian army remained high

3.     Napoleon’s army continued to diminish in size

a.      Borodino was a win for Napoleon

                                                                                                                          i.      30,000 men lost

4.     Moscow was found in flames

5.     Winter was coming

6.     The Russian army was nipping at Napoleon’s flanks

7.     Napoleon orders retreat in the face of the oncoming Russian winter

a.      The Russian army forces Napoleon to take a northern route

b.     The winter caused great suffering

8.     600,000+ left for Moscow, 400,000 died, 100,000 were taken prisoner

a.      The Grand Army was lost

d.     Anti-Napoleon forces make their move on all fronts

                                                  i.      Britain, Spain, Austria, Russia, Germany

e.      Napoleon raises another army but succumbs in the face of massive opposition

                                                  i.      Battle of the Nations

                                                ii.      Allies against Napoleon are distrustful of each other and the pressure eases once Napoleon is pushed back into France

3.     The Restoration of the Bourbons

a.      Napoleon is offered a chance to remain as Emperor in the Frankfort proposals

                                                  i.      A strong France would be an important balancing force against England

b.     Castlereagh arrived from England and played on Austrian fears of Russia

                                                  i.      Quadruple Alliance (March 1814) pits the allies against France

                                                ii.      Napoleon abdicates (April 1814)

                                              iii.      His support in France is gone as the demands for peace are high

c.     Talleyrand

                                                  i.      Moves to reinstate Louis XVIII

1.     Monarchy is restored with a constitution

2.     France is willing to make some sacrifices for peace

4.     The Settlement before the Vienna Congress

a.      “First” Treaty of Paris (May 1814)

                                                  i.      France goes back to pre-Napoleonic borders

                                                ii.      No reparations

                                              iii.      Napoleon is exiled to Elba

b.     Before consenting to the Congress of Vienna Russia and England establish claims

                                                  i.      Russia retained Bessarabia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Finland

                                                ii.      British retained Malta, the Ionian Islands, Trinidad, Tobago, Mauritius, the Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, and much of India

1.     England is poised for its role as the leading western power

a.      Navy

b.     Colonies

c.     Markets

d.     Lack of competition

e.      Advanced industrialization

f.       Advanced financial institutions

g.     Advanced constitutionalism

h.     Advanced movement of population toward working class labor force

5.     The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815

a.      Talleyrand, Castlereagh, Metternich, and Alexander

                                                  i.      Hardenberg represented Prussia

b.     “Balance of Power” is key to the diplomatic outcomes

                                                  i.      Barrier of strong states is erected around France

1.     Netherlands is expanded with Austrian Netherlands and Belgium and Hanover family is restored

2.     Sardinia is expanded with Genoa

3.     Germany receives the left bank of the Rhine

a.      Consolidation under Napoleon is left in place

b.     Fragmentation and autonomy remains

c.     A unified Germany and nationalism is yet to come

4.     Austria receives northern Italy

5.     Pope receives the rest of Italy (Papal States)

6.     In Spain the Bourbons are restored

7.     Braganzas are restored in Portugal

6.     The Polish-Saxon Question

a.      Russia wanted Poland reconstituted and under Russia protection

b.     Prussia agreed only if Saxony became Prussian

c.     Austria and England cannot agree to the terms

                                                  i.      Make secret alliance with France to go to war against Russia and Prussia if necessary

d.     Russia agrees to compromise

                                                  i.      Grand Duchy of Warsaw is transferred to Russia (smaller than all of Poland)

                                                ii.      Reduced Saxony is transferred to Prussia

e.      Result of the wars and peace process was the shift Russia and Prussia toward the west

7.     The Hundred days and Their Aftermath

a.      Napoleon escaped from Elba

b.     Louis XVIII is associated with vengeful behavior of the returning émigrés

c.     Return of the “emperor” causes a rally of support

                                                  i.      Wellington meets Napoleon at Waterloo and Napoleon is defeated

1.     Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to St. Helena

d.     Second Treaty of Paris is made

                                                  i.      France is forced to pay and indemnity 700,000,000 francs

                                                ii.      Army of occupation is placed in France to keep France in line

e.      Quadruple Alliance of Chaumont

                                                  i.      No Bonaparte should ever govern France

                                                ii.      Future congresses would be called to review the political situation of Europe

f.       The Holy Alliance

                                                  i.      Alexander proposes an alliance to uphold “Christian principles of charity and peace.

                                                ii.      All sign except the Pope, the Ottoman sultan, and the regent of Great Britain

1.     Later becomes a symbol of unholy monarchies against liberty and progress

g.     The Peace of Vienna

                                                  i.      Maintains the peace for over 50 years

                                                ii.      Little satisfaction is felt by nationalists and democrats

1.     transfer of control of people from one government to another without consultation

2.     Resentments will continue to motivate liberal movements

                                              iii.      Brought an end to the waves of upheaval caused by the French Revolution

h.     Legacy of the Revolution

                                                  i.      Seeds of liberalism are planted throughout Europe

                                                ii.      Latin American revolutions are about to break out

                                              iii.      Demonstrated that and open system could mobilize national resources more effectively than monarchical systems

                                             iv.      Opened the door for conversations on human rights, political participation, and nationalism that continue to the present