Topic 14 Discussion 71 The Civilized World

 

1.     Introduction

a.      From 1860 to 1918 Europe rose to world domination

                                                  i.      The climax of the modern phase

                                                ii.      Material and industrial growth

                                              iii.      International and domestic peace

                                             iv.      Constitutional, representative, and democratic government

                                               v.      Continued faith in science, reason, and progress

b.     New forces were emerging to challenge liberalism

c.     European imperialism spread across the globe

                                                  i.      Institutions of modern Europe were being challenged at home

2.     Materialistic and Non-materialistic Ideals

a.      Modern Europe was perceived as civilized and the result of progress

b.     Others that did not adopt Europe’s model were “Backward”

                                                  i.      Civilized and Backward were central concepts in imperialism

c.     Ideals of civilization

                                                  i.      Higher standard of living

1.     Food, shelter, clothing, and sanitation

                                                ii.      Technological advances

1.     Ocean liners, railroads, streetcars, and telecommunications

                                              iii.      Scientific knowledge of nature

1.     Moving superstition and demonology to the margins

2.     Geographic knowledge of the earth

                                             iv.      Morality separate from barbarism

1.     Did not accept “relics of barbarism”

a.      Polygamy

b.     Infanticide

c.     Legalized prostitution

d.     Capricious divorce

e.      Sanguinary and immoral games

f.       Torture

g.     Caste and Slavery

d.     Further evidence of advancement

                                                  i.      Lower death rates

                                                ii.      Lower infant mortality rates

                                              iii.      Higher average age

                                             iv.      Higher literacy rates

                                               v.      Increased productivity of labor

e.      The intangibles of civilized living

                                                  i.      The way the mind was used

                                                ii.      Attitude

1.     Toward others

2.     Toward planning life

3.     The Zones of Civilization

a.      Inner Zone of steam and industry

                                                  i.      Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, northern Italy, southern Sweden, northeastern United States

                                                ii.      Huge accumulation of capital

                                              iii.      Cutting edge of science and technology

                                             iv.      Most liberal and constitutional governments

b.     The outer zone of agriculture

                                                  i.      Ireland, Iberia, southern Italy, Europe east of Germany, southern and western United States

                                                ii.      Poorer, less literate, less productivity, shorter lived

                                              iii.      Existed by selling agricultural products to the west

                                             iv.      Depended on the west

1.     Capital:  debt

2.     Social and political philosophies

3.     Engineers and technicians

4.     University educations

c.     The third zone

                                                  i.      Asia and Africa

                                                ii.      Viewed as backward by the Europeans

                                              iii.      Heavily dependent upon Europe

                                             iv.      The relations among the three zones illustrates much of the modern age